Journal articles 


89. Garn JV, Boisson S, Willis R, Bakhtiari A, al-Khatib T, Amer K, Batcho W, Courtright P, Dejene M, Goepogui A, Kalua K, Kebede B, McCleod C, Madeline KIM, Mbofana MSA, Mpyet C, Ndjemba J, Olobio N, Pavluck AL, Sokana O, Southisombath Khamphoua, Taleo F, Solomon A, Freeman MC§ (2018) Sanitation and water supply coverage thresholds associated with active trachoma: Modeling cross-sectional data from 13 countries. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 12(1):e0006110.

88. Delea MG, Solomon H, Solomon AW, Freeman MC§ (2018) Interventions to maximize facial cleanliness and achieve environmental improvement for trachoma elimination: A review of the grey literature. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 12(1):e0006178.

87. Ritter R, Peprah D, Null C, Moe C, Armah G, Ampofo J, Wellington N, Yakubu H, Robb K, Kirby A, Wang Y, Roguski K, Reese H, Agbemabiese C, Adomako L, Freeman MC, Baker K (2018) Sanitation access, usage for child feces, and household fecal contamination in low-income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Environmental Science & Technology. 


86. Penakalapati G, Swarthout J, Delahoy MJ, McAliley L, Wodnik B, Levy K, Freeman MC§ (2017) Exposure to animal feces and human health: A systematic review and proposed research priorities. Environmental science & technology. 51(20):11537-52.

85. Delea MG, Nagel CL, Thomas EA, Halder AK, Amin N, Shoab AK, Freeman MC, Unicomb L, Clasen TF (2017) Comparison of respondent-reported and sensor-recorded latrine utilization measures in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 111(7):308-15.

84. Keys HM*, Kaiser BN, Foster JW, Freeman MC, Stephenson R, Lund AJ, Khort BA (2017) Cholera control and anti-Haitian stigma in the Dominican Republic: from migration policy to lived experience. Anthropology & Medicine. doi: 10.1080/13648470.2017.1368829

83.     Girod C*, Ellis A, Andes K, Freeman MC, Caruso BA. Physical, social, and political inequities constraining girls' menstrual management at schools in informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Urban Health. doi: 10.1007/s11524-017-0189-3

82.    Sinharoy SS, Freeman MC, Waid J, Stein AD (2017) Open defecation explains differences in nutritional status between Bengali and tribal children in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Ethnicity and Health. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2017.1346186

81.    Sclar GD, Garn JV, Penakalapati G, Alexander KT, Krauss J, Freeman MC, Boisson S, Medlicott KO, Clasen T (2017) Effects of sanitation on cognitive development and school absence: a systematic review. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.06.010

80.    Freeman MC, Garn JV, Sclar GD, Alexander KT, Anderson DM, Grimes J, Mahtani AG, Penakalapati G, Rehfuess EA, Clasen TF (2017) The impact of sanitation on infectious disease and nutritional status: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 220(6) pp. 928-949 doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.05.007

79.     Wang Y, Moe C, Null C, Raj S, Baker K, Robb K, Yakubu H, Ampofo J, Wellington, N, Freeman M, Armah, G, Reese H, Peprah D, Teunis P. (2017) Multi-pathway quantitative assessment of exposure to fecal contamination for young children in low-income urban environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath analytical approach. American Jounral of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0408

78.    Person M*, Alexander KA, Bekele A, Delea M, Garn JV, Freeman MC§ (2017) Assessing the Influence of Social Capital on Water Point Sustainability in Rural Ethiopia. Waterlines. 7(2) doi: 10.2166/washdev.2017.167

77.     Waite RC*, Woods G, Velleman Y, Freeman MC§ (2017) Collaborating to develop joint water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and neglected tropical disease (NTD) sector monitoring: an expert consultation. International Health. Doi: 10.1093/inthealth/ihx008

76.    Oswald WE, Stewart AEP, Kramer MR, Endeshaw T, Zerihun M, Melak B, Sata E, Gessese D, Teferi T, Tadesse Z, Guadie B, King JD, Emerson PM, Callahan EK, Freeman MC, Flanders WD, Clasen TF, Moe CL (2017) Association of community sanitation usage with soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-age children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Parasites & Vectors. 10(91) Doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2020-0

75.  Garn JV*, Brumback B, Freeman MC§. Author response to letter to editor. Epidemiology. In press

74.  Garn JV*, Brumback BA, Drews-Botsch CD, Lash TL, Kramer MR, Freeman MC§ (2016) Using structural nested models to estimate the effect of school water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) improvements on pupil diarrhea and soil-transmitted helminth infectionEpidemiology. PMID:27276028

73.     Trinies V, Garn JV*, Toubkiss J, Freeman MC§The role of adherence on the impact of a school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention in Mali. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0558

72.     Moss D, Chard A, Trinies V, Doumbia S, Freeman MC, Lammie P. (2017) Serological response to fiarial antigens in Malain children attending elementary schools. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0560


71.     Bohnert K*, Chard AN*, Mwaki A, Kirby AE, Muga R, Nagel CL, Thomas EA, Freeman MC§ (2016) Comparing sanitation delivery modalities in urban informal settlement schools: A randomized trial in Nairobi, Kenya. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13(12) 1189 doi:10.3390/ijerph13121189

70.     Rogier E, Moss DM, Chard AN*, Trinies V, Doumbia S, Freeman MC, Lammie PJ (2016) Evaluation of immunoglobulin g responses to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in Malian school children using multiplex bead assay. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. doi:10.4269/ajtmh/16-0476

69.     Sclar GD, Penakalapati G, Garn JV, Alexander KT, Amato H, Freeman MC, Clasen TF (2016) Assessing the Impact of Sanitation on Indicators of Fecal Exposure Along Principal Transmission Pathways: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 219 pp. 709-723 doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.09.021

68.     Garn JV, Sclar GD, Freeman MC, Penakalapati G, Alexander KT, Brooks P, Rehfuess EA, Clasen TF (2016) The Impact of Sanitation Interventions on Latrine Coverage and Latrine Use: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.10.001

67.     Hadley C & Freeman MC. (2016) Assessing reliability, change after intervention, and performance of a water insecurity scale in rural Ethiopia. Food Security doi:10.1007/s12571-016-0599-1

66.     Okoyo CO, Nikolay B, Kihara J, Simiyu E, Garn JV, Freeman, MC, Mwanje MT, Mukoko DA, Brooker SJ, Pullan RL, Njenga SM, Mwandawiro CS. (2016) Monitoring the impact of a national school based deworming programme on soil-transmitted helminths in Kenya: The first three years, 2012 – 2014. Parasites and Vectors. 9(408) doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1679-y

65.     Alexander KT, Mwaki A, Adhiambo D, Cheney-Coker M, Muga R, Freeman MC§. (2016) The life-cycle costs of school water, sanitation and hygiene access in Kenyan primary schools. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13(7), 637; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070637

64.     Freeman MC, Majorin F, Boisson S, Routray P, Torondel B, Clasen T (2016) The impact of a rural sanitation programme on safe disposal of child faeces: a cluster randomized trial in Odisha, India. (2016) Transactions of the Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 110(7): 386-392. doi:10.1093/trstmh/trw043

63.     Freeman MC, Strunz E*, Utzinger J, Addiss DG (2016) Interventions to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene for preventing soil-transmitted infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 5 doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012199

62.     Stevenson EGJ, Ambelu A, Caruso BA, Tesfaye Y, Freeman MC§  (2016) Community water improvement, household water insecurity, and women’s psychological distress: An intervention and control study in Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 11(4): e0153432. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153432

61.     Bresee S, Caruso BA, Sales J, Freeman MC§ (2016) “A Child is also a Teacher”: Exploring the Potential for Children as Change Agents in the Context of a School-based WASH Intervention in Rural Eastern Zambia. Health Education Research. doi:10.1093/her/cyw022

60.     Trinies V, Garn JV, Chang HH, Freeman MC§ (2016) The impact of a comprehensive school WASH program on absenteeism, diarrhea, and respiratory infection symptoms: a matched-control trial in Mali. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 94(6) pp.1418-1425. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0757.

59. Trinies V, Chard AN*, Mateo T, Freeman MC§ (2016) Effects of water provision and hydration on cognitive function among primary-school pupils in Zambia: a randomized trialPLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150071

58.  Garn JV*, Mwandawiro CS, Nikolay B, Drews-Botsch CD, Kihara JH, Brooker SJ, Simiyu EW, Okoyo C, Freeman MC§ (2016) Ascaris lumbricoides infection following school based deworming in Western Kenya: assessing the role of pupils’ school and home water, sanitation and hygiene exposuresAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. doi: 10/4269/ajtmh.15-0362

57.    Conkle J*, Ramakrishnan U, Freeman MC§ (2016) Prechewing infant food, consumption of sweets and dairy, and not breastfeeding are associated with increased diarrhea risk of ten month old infants in the USA. Maternal & Child Nutrition. Doi: 10.1111/mcn.12303

56.     Waite RC*, Velleman Y, Woods G, Chitty A, Freeman MC§ (2015) Integration of water, sanitation and hygiene for the control of neglected tropical dseases: A review of progress and the way forwardInternational Health. 8 (Suppl 1): i22i27 doi:10.1093/inthealth/ihw003

55.     Ellis A, Haver J, Villasenor J, Parawan A, Venkatesh M, Freeman MC, Caruso BA (2016) WASH Challenges to girls’ menstrual hygiene management in Metro Manila, Masbate and South Central Mindanao, Philippines. Waterlines. 35(3), pp. 306–323. doi: 10.3362/1756-3488.2016.022


54.     Stocks M, Freeman MC, Addiss DA (2015) The effect of hygiene-based lymphedema management in lymphatic filariasis-endemic areas: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004171

53.     Dreibelbis RD, Jenkin M, Chase R, Torondel B, Routray P, Boisson S, Clasen T, Freeman MC§ (2015) Development of a multi-dimensional scale to assess attitudinal determinants of sanitation uptake and use. Environmental Science and Technology. 49 (22), pp 13613-13621 doi: 10.10021/acs.est.5b02985 

52.     Nikolay B, Mwandawiro CS , Kihara JH, Okoyo C, Cano J, Mwanje MT, Sultani H, Alusala D, Turner HC, Teti C, Garn J, Freeman MC, Allen E, Anderson RM, Pullan RL, Njenga SM, Brooker SJ. (2015) Understanding heterogeneity in the impact of national neglected tropical disease control programmes: evidence from school-based deworming in Kenya. PLoS NTD. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004108

51.     Collender PA, Kirby AE, Addiss DA, Freeman MC§, Remais JV (2015) Methods for quantification of soil-transmitted helminths in environmental media: Current techniques and recent advances. Trends in Parasitology. 31(12)  pp. 625–639

50.     Freeman MC, Chard AN*, Nikolay B, Garn JV*, Okoyo C, Kihara J, Njenga S, Rachel RL, Brooker SJ, Mwandawiro CS (2015) Associations between school- and household-level water, sanitation and hygiene conditions and soil-transmitted helminths infection among Kenyan school children Parasites & Vectors. 8:412  doi:10.1186/s13071-015-1024-x

49.     Brooker SJ, Mwandawiro CS, Halliday K, Njenga S, Carlos M; Gichuki P, Athuman C, Hugo T, Teti C, Gwayi-Chore C, Truscott J, Hollingsworth Deirdre, Balabanova D, Griffiths U, Freeman MC, Allen E, Anderson R (2015) Interrupting transmission of soil-transmitted helminths: a study protocol for cluster randomised trials evaluating alternative treatment strategies and delivery systems in Kenya. BMJ Open. 5(10): e008950. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008950

48. Padhi BK, Baker KK, Dutta A, Cumming O, Freeman MC, Satpathy R, Das B, Panigrahi P (2015) Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India: A Population-Based Prospective Study. PLoS Medicine. 12 (7): e1001851. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001851

47. Sahoo K, Hulland K, Caruso BA, Swain R, Freeman MC, Panigrahi P, Dreibelbis R (2015) Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.  Social Science & Medicine. 130 pp. 80-89 doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.06.031

46. Fry D*, Mideksa D, Ambelu A, Feyisa Y, Abaire B, Cunliff K, Freeman MC§ (2015) Adoption and sustained use of the arborloo in rural Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development. 5 (3) 412-425; DOI: 10.2166/washdev.2015.149

45. Lund A*, Keyes H, Foster J, Freeman MC§ (2015) Prevalence of cholera risk factors among migrant Haitian and Dominicans in the Dominican Republic. Pan American Journal of Public Health. 37(3): 125-132.

44. Grimes JET, Croll D, Harrison W, Utzinger J, Freeman MC, Templeton M (2015) The role of water, sanitation, and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review. Parasites and Vectors. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003296

43. Alexander KT, Tesfaye Y, Dreibelbis R, Abaire B, Freeman MC§ (2015) Governance and functionality of community water schemes in rural Ethiopia. International Journal of Public Health. doi:10.1007/s00038-015-0675-x

42. Long JL*, Caruso BA,  Mamani M, Camacho G, Vancraeynest K, Freeman MC§ (2015) Developing Games as a Qualitative Method for Researching Menstrual Hygiene Management in Rural Bolivia. Waterlines. doi:10.3362/1756-3488.2015.007

41. Trinies V, Caruso BA, Toubkiss J, Sogore A, Freeman MC§ (2015) Uncovering the challenges to menstrual hygiene management in schools in Mali. Waterlines. doi:10.3362/1756-3488.2015.004


40. Grimes JET, Croll D, Harrison W, Utzinger J, Freeman MC, Templeton M (2014) The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003296

39. Liang S, Yang C, Zhong B, Guo J, Li H, Carlton EJ, Freeman MC, Remais JV (2014) Surveillance systems for neglected tropical diseases: global lessons from China’s evolving schistosomiasis reporting systems, 1949-2014. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology. 11(19) doi:10.1186/1742-7622-11-19

38. Clasen T, Boisson S, Routray P, Torondel B, Bell M, Cumming O, Ensink J, Freeman MC, Jenkins M, Odagiri M, Ray S, Sinha A, Suar M, Schmidt W-P (2014) The effectiveness of a rural sanitation programme in Orissa, India on diarrhea soil-transmitted helminths infection and child malnutrition: A cluster-randomized trial. Lancet Global Health. 2(11): e645-e653 doi:10.1016/s2214-109x(14)70307-9

37. Hodges M, Belle JH, Carlton EJ, Liang S, Li H, Luo W, Freeman MC, Liu Y, Gao Y, Hess JH, Remais JV (2014) Climate change blunts progress reducing infectious disease attributable to unsafe water and sanitation in China. Nature Climate Change doi:10.1038/nclimate2428

36. Garn JV*, Caruso BA, Drews-Botsch CD, Kramer MR, Brumback BA, Rheingans RD, Freeman MC§ (2014) Factors associated with pupil toilet latrine use in Kenyan primary schools. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Helth  11: 9694-9711. doi:10.3390/ijerph110909694

35. Yerian S*, Hennink M, Greene LE, Kiptugen D, Buri J, Freeman MC§ (2014) The role of women in water management and conflict resolution in Marsabit, Kenya.  Environmental Management.  doi 10.1007/s00267-014-0356-1

34. Jenkins MW, Freeman MC, Routray P (2014) Measuring the safety of excreta disposal behavior in India with the new safe san index: Reliability, validity and utility. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health .  11(8): 8319-46 doi:10.3390/ijerph110808319

33. Caruso BA, Freeman MC, Garn JV*, Dreibelbis R, Saboori S, Muga R, Rheingans R (2014) Assessing the impact of a school-based latrine cleaning and handwashing program on pupil absence in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial. Tropical Medicine and International Health 19(10): 1185-97. doi:10.1111/tmi/12360

32. Gass K*, Addiss DG, Freeman MC§ (2014) Exploring the relationship between access to water, sanitation and hygiene and soil-transmitted helminth infection: A demonstration of two recursive partitioning toolsPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases.  8(6): e2945. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002945

31. Freeman MC, Stocks M, Cumming O, Jeandron A, Higgins JPT, Wolf J, Prüss-Ustün A, Bonjour S, Hunter PR, Fewtrell L, Curtis V. Hygiene and health: systematic review of handwashing practices worldwide and update of health effects. Tropical Medicine and International Health 19(8): 906-16. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12339

30. Prüss-Ustün A, Bartram J, Clasen T, Colford JM, Cumming O, Curtis V, Bonjour S, Dangour AD, De France J, Fewtrell L, Freeman MC, Gordon B, Hunter PR, Johnston RB, Mathers C, Mäusezahl D, Medlicott K, Neira M, Stocks M, Wolf J, Cairncross S. (2014) Burden of diarrhoeal disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries.  Tropical Medicine and International Health 19(8): 894-905. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12329

29. Wolf J, Prüss-Ustün A, Cumming O, Bartram J, Bonjour S, Cairncross S, Clasen T, Colford JM, Curtis V, De France J, Fewtrell L, Freeman MC, Gordon B, Hunter PR, Jeandron A, Johnston RB, Maüsezahl D, Mathers C, Neira M, Higgins J. (2014) Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: A systematic review and meta-regression. Tropical Medicine and International Health 19(8): 928-942.  doi: 10.1111/tmi.12331

28. Pullan R, Freeman MC, Geithing P, Brooker S (2014) Geographical inequalities in use of improved drinking water supply and sanitation across sub-Saharan Africa: Mapping and spatial analysis of cross-sectional survey data. PLos Medicine 11(4): e1001626. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001626                 **See the maps here**

27. Zambrano L*, Levy K, Menezes N*, Freeman MC§ (2014) Human diarrhoea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 108(6): 313-325. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/tru056   **Editor's choice**

26. Strunz EC*, Addiss DG, Stocks ME*, Ogden S, Utzinger J, Freeman MC§ (2014) Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine 11(3): e1001620 doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001620

25. Stocks ME*, Ogden S, Haddad D, Addiss DG, McGuire C*, Freeman MC§ (2014) Effect of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene on the Prevention of Trachoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS Medicine 11(2): e1001605. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001605

24. Majorin F*, Freeman MC, Barnard S, Routray P, Boisson S, et al. (2014) Child Feces Disposal Practices in Rural Orissa: A Cross Sectional Study. PLoS ONE 9(2): e89551. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089551


23. Brumback B, He Z, Prasad M, Freeman MC, Rheingans R (2013)  Using stuctural-nested models to estimate the effects of cluster-level adherence on individual –level outcomes with a three-arm cluster-randomized trial.  Statistics in Medicine 33(9): 1490-1502. doi: 10.1002/sim.6049

22. Erhard L*, DeGabriele J, Naughton, D, Freeman MC§ (2013) Policy and provision of WASH in schools for children with disabilities: A case study in Malawi and Uganda. Global Public Health 8(9): 1000-1013 doi: 10.1080/17441692.2013.838284

21. Freeman MC, Clasen T, Brooker S, Akoko D, Rheingans R (2013) The impact of a school-based hygiene, water quality, and sanitation intervention on soil-transmitted helminth reinfection: a cluster-randomized trial. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89(5): 875-883. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0237

20. Freeman MC, Ogden S, et al.  (2013) Integration of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for the Prevention and Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A rationale for inter-sectoral collaboration.  PLoS Nelgected Tropical Diseases 7(9) e2439. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002439

19. Saboori S*; Greene LE; Moe CL; Freeman MC; Caruso B*; Akoko D; Rheingans, R (2013) The impact of regular soap provision to primary schools on hand washing and E. coli hand contamination among pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: A cluster-randomized trial. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hyigiene 89(4): 698-708. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0387

18. Fehr A*, Sahin M, Freeman MC§ (2013) Sub-national inequities in Philippine water access associated with poverty and water potential. Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development. 3(4): 638–645. doi:10.2166/washdev.2013.115 

17. Freeman MC, Clasen T, Dreibelbis R, Greene LE, Saboori S, Brumback B, Muga R, Rheingans R (2013) The impact of a school-based water supply and treatment, hygiene, and sanitation programme on pupil diarrhoea: A cluster-randomized trial. Epidemiology and Infection 142(2): 340-51. doi: 10.1017/S0950268813001118 Download the .pdf

16. Garn J*, Greene LE, Dreibelbis R, Saboori S, Rheingans R, Freeman MC§ (2013) A cluster-randomized trial assessing the impact of school water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements on pupil enrollment and gender parity in enrollment.  Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development 3(4):592-601.  doi: 10.2166/washdev.2013.217  

15. Dreibelbis R, Freeman MC, Greene LE, Saboori S, Rheingans R (2013) The impact of school water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions on the health of younger siblings of school-going pupils: A cluster-randomized trial. American Journal of Public Health. 104(1): e91-7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301412

14. Alexander K, Dreibelbis R, Freeman MC, Ojeny B, Rheingans R. (2012)  Improving service delivery of water, sanitation, and hygiene in primary schools: A cluster-randomized trial in Western Kenya.  Journal of Water and Health 11(3): 507-519 doi: 10.2166/wh.2013.213


13. Clasen T, Boisson S, Routray P, Cumming O, Jenkins M, Ensink JHJ, Bell M, Freeman MC, Peppin S, Schmidt W-P (2012) The effect of improved rural sanitation on diarrhoea and helminth infection: design of a cluster-randomized trial in Orissa, IndiaEmerging Themes in Epidemiology 9(7) doi: 10.1186/1742-7622-9-7

12. Freeman MC, Trinies V*, Mak G*, Boisson S, Clasen T. (2012) Promoting household water treatment through women’s self help groups in Rural India: Assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity. PLoS ONE 7 (9): e44068 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044068

11. Freeman MC,  Snel M, Yousif ME, Gitahi S, Kahn F, Wachira S, Krukkert I. (2012) The use of urinals in Kenyan schools. Waterlines 31(3): 226-239.  doi: 10.3362/1756-3488.2012.023

10. Dreibelbis R, Greene LE, Freeman MC, Saboori S, Chase, R, Rheingans R. (2012) Water, sanitation, and primary school attendance: a multi-level assessment of determinants of household-reported absence in Kenya. International Journal of Education Development 33(5):457-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2012.07.002

9. Greene LE, Freeman MC, Akoko D, Saboori S, Moe CL, Rheingans R. (2012) Impact of a school-based hygiene promotion and sanitation intervention on pupil hand contamination in western Kenya: a cluster randomized trial. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87(3): 385-393.  doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0633

8. Freeman MC, Greene LE, Dreibelbis R, Saboori S, Muga R, Brumback B, Rheingans R. (2012) Assessing the impact of a school-based water treatment, hygiene and sanitation programme on pupil absence in Nynaza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial. Tropical Medicine and International Health 17(3): 380-391.  doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02927.x


7. Freeman MC, Clasen T. (2011) Assessing the impact of a school-based safe water intervention on household adoption of point-of-use water treatment practices in Southern India.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84(3): 370-8 doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0361

6. Birdthistle I, Dickson K, Javidi L, Freeman MC, Javidi L . (2011).  What impact does the provision of separate toilets for girls at school have on their primary and secondary school enrolment, attendance and completion?  A systematic review of evidence.  London: MARCH Centre at LSHTM and EPPI-Centre, University of London.

5. Trinies V, Freeman MC, Henninck M, Clasen T. (2011) The role of social networks on the adoption of household water filters by members of women’s self-help groups in rural India. Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development  1(4): 224-232.  doi: 10.2166/washdev.2011.127

4. Saboori S, Mwaki A, Oketch B, Porter S, Freeman MC, Rheingans R. (2011) Sustaining school washing and water treatment programmes: Lessos learned and to be learned. Waterlines 30(4): 298-311. doi: 10.3362/1756-3488.2011.040

3. Freeman MC, Quick RE, Ougtu P. Abbott DP, Rheingans R. (2009) Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: A case study in Western Kenya. Journal of Water and Health 7(3): 527-34.  doi: 10.2166/wh.2009.063

2. O’Rielly CE, Freeman MC, Ravani M, Migele J, Mwaki A, Ayalo M, Ombeki S, Hoekstra RM, Quick R. (2008) The impact of a school-based safe water and hygiene program on knowledge and practices of students and their parents — Nyanza Province, western Kenya, 2006. Epidemiology and Infection 136(1):80-91.  doi:

1. Rheingans R, Dreibelbis R, Freeman MC. (2006) Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: Public Health Challenges in Water and Sanitation.  Global Public Health 1(1): 31-48.  doi: 10.1080/17441690500443139

Book Chapters

1.     Freeman MC. (2015) Principles of school-based interventions. In: Bartram J, editor. Handbook of Water and Health. Earthscan

2.     Helian S, Brumback B, Freeman MC, Rheingans R (2015) Structural nested models for cluster-randomized trials. In: Ha H, Pan W, Din C, editors. Statistical causal inferences and their applications in public health Research. Springer


* Represents work by student or recent graduate; § Represents senior or co-senior authorship