Animal Feces Exposure

A number of human pathogens can be found in animal feces, yet the feces from these animals pose a currently unquantified risk to human health.  It is possible that WASH interventions may fail due to persistent exposure to fecal pathogens of animal (zoonotic) origin.  In close collaboration with Karen Levy's research group, we are working to explore the potential human health risks of exposure to animal feces in low-income settings. This work is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 


  1. Pathogens transmitted in animal feces in low- and middle-income countries (2018)

  2. Exposure to animal feces and human health: A systematic review and proposed research priorities (2017)

  3. Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: A systematic review and meta-analysis (2014)

Briefs, reports, case studies:

In the press:



Study Location


Principal Investigators

Matthew Freeman, Karen Levy



Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation


Project Staff

Frederica Lamar, Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Breanna Wodnik, Miranda Delahoy, Lydia McAlilay